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Our Transformative Technology.

Next-Generation Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NIBS) Device

Photigen™ is a non-invasive wearable head device for treating neurodegenerative diseases, setting new standards in Alzheimer's care.


Designed for nighttime wear, maximizing duration of use and ensuring better user compliance. Utilizes a comprehensive suite of stimuli such as optogenetic, auditory, magnetic, ultrasonic, NIRS, electrical and other elements to boost cognition and memory, and slow the pathological cascade.


Administers photic and auditory stimuli aimed at modulating gamma oscillations, a mechanism in the brain that's been linked to the creation of stronger connections between the regions of the brain, more efficient removal of neuron-destroying proteins and the activation of microglia, the brain's immune cells.

Gamma Oscillations Control Brain Connectivity

Gamma oscillations are the fastest rhythmic fluctuations in local field potentials (LFPs) that span a broad range of frequencies (~25-100 Hz) in the brain, and are prominent across multiple brain regions.1 


Gamma oscillations specifically control the connectivity between different brain regions, which is responsible for cognitive functioning, learning, memory, perception, emotion, attentional selection and information processing.2


Reduced and/or abnormal gamma oscillations are positive diagnostic indicators of conditions of the central nervous system, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and schizophrenia.2

 

These gamma oscillations have physiologic mechanisms that directly influence the neuropathological cascade, i.e. excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) balance, cerebral blood flow (CBF), morpho-functional properties of microglia and brain volume.3
 

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1. Alexandra J Mably, Laura Lee Colgin,Gamma oscillations in cognitive disorders,Current Opinion in Neurobiology,Volume 52, 2018,Pages 182-187,ISSN 0959-4388,https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2018.07.009.
2. Guan A, Wang S, Huang A, Qiu C, Li Y, Li X, Wang J, Wang Q and Deng B (2022) The role of gamma oscillations in central nervous system diseases: Mechanism and treatment. Front. Cell. Neurosci. 16:962957. doi: 10.3389/fncel.2022.962957
3. Mably AJ, Colgin LL. Gamma oscillations in cognitive disorders. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2018 Oct;52:182-187. doi: 10.1016/j.conb.2018.07.009. Epub 2018 Aug 16. PMID: 30121451; PMCID: PMC6139067.

Gamma ENtrainment Using Sensory Stimulation (GENUS)

Existing research on Gamma Entrainment Using Sensory stimulation (GENUS)1 has shown dramatic positive modulation of these physiologic mechanisms, indirectly impacting brain atrophy process, amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, and neurofibrillary phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) tangles formation, and thus, resulting in positive cognitive and behavioral manifestations. 1

Recent findings indicate limitations in affecting deeper brain structures such as the visual cortex, entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus. 2


Entrainment depth has been proven to be directly related to stimulus intensity.
The weak spike responses in the hippocampus suggest that traditional 40-Hz light techniques fall short in impacting deeper brain structures.


Photigen™'s nighttime wearability eliminates concerns of flickering light interference with daily activities, allowing for higher intensity use, which enables it to target and effectively entrain deeper brain structures, setting it apart from competitors.
 

1. Safety, Tolerability and Efficacy of 40Hz Sensory Stimulation for Alzheimer’s Disease, Mihály Hajós, et al. medRxiv 2023.03.23.23287637; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.03.23.23287637. (OVERTURE Study)
2. Soula, M., Martín-Ávila, A., Zhang, Y. et al. Forty-hertz light stimulation does not entrain native gamma oscillations in Alzheimer’s disease model mice. Nat Neurosci 26, 570–578 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-023-01270-2

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